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TIPDİL SINAV SORULARI
Soruda, cümlede boş bırakılan yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
1) Certain nations have ---- the use of prenatal diagnostic techniques to select the sex of an unborn child; but, bribery and human ingenuity have made it easy for prospective parents to by-pass the statute.
2) Recent studies have shown that smokers are more ---- to common colds and flu than non-smokers.
3) The discovery of a ---- cancer-causing chemical in foods like crisps, chips and cereals caused shock waves around the world when it hit the headlines earlier this year.
4) The laws concerning the breeding of animals for research could turn out to be to the ---- of medical research.
5) Marathon-training schedules range from four to six months and they all ---- considerable discipline.
6) His doctor ---- advising him to take it easy for a while and stop all overtime but he didn't listen.
7) He insisted that mountaineering ---- a sport for him, but a passion that ---- his whole life.
A)hadn't been / would dominate
B)isn't / has dominated
C)hasn't been / is dominating
D)wouldn't be / is dominating
E)wasn't / had dominated
8) The origins of Western cooking ---- to ideas about diet and nutrition that ---- during the 17th century.
A)might be traced / have appeared
B)must be traced / appear
C)have to be traced / were appearing
D)can be traced / appeared
E)could be traced / are appearing
9) Investigations by modern doctors ---- that Catherine the Great of Russia ---- from syphilis.
A)have suggested / has suffered
B)suggest / suffered
C)had suggested / was suffering
D)may have suggested / would have suffered
E)suggested / suffers
10) An Indian drug company has offered to supply an anti-AIDS drug ---- sufferers in developing countries ---- less than one-twentieth of the standard cost in the West.
A)in / to
B)at / over
C)with / for
D)to / at
E)on / with
11) Nursing has evolved from an unstructured method ---- caring for the ill ---- a scientific profession.
A)of / to
B)in / for
C)under / from
D)with / over
E)between / on
12) Many ordinary people don't realize that fat is not digested in the stomach, ---- in the small intestine.
13) Perhaps these people are ---- ignorant to realize ---- serious a threat these fertilizers are to their health.
A)more / than
B)so / why
C)as much / as
D)too / just how
E)not only / but also
14) In child development, play and exploration are similar ---- they are both intrinsically motivated behaviours and not directed by external goals.
A)on the other hand
15) The body's immune system attacks and eliminates ---- bacteria and other foreign substances ---- cancer cells.
A)not only / but also
B)rather / than
C)such / that
D)as well as / and
E)just as / as
16) There are situations ---- the best way to heal the patient is to help him die peacefully.
17) If we are to prevent the flow of toxic materials into the water reservoirs of the country, there is no other possible scheme available, ---- ?
18) The problem with antiseptics is that ---- killing germs they ---- kill the surrounding tissues.
A)far / from
B)so far as / too
C)as much as / both
D)besides / as well
E)as well as / also
Aşağıdaki parçada numaralanmış yerlere uygun düşen sözcük ya da ifadeyi bulunuz.
To determine a person's diet history, the doctor asks what foods (1) ---- in the previous 24 hours and what types of food are usually eaten. The person may be asked to keep a food diary, in which he lists everything he eats for three days. (2) ---- the physical examination, the doctor observes the person's general appearance and behaviour (3) ---- the distribution of body fat and the functioning of body organs. (4) ---- the doctor suspects skin'>severe malnutrition, he orders a complete blood cell count and blood and urine tests to measure levels of vitamins, minerals, and waste products such as urea. Skin tests may also be ordered to (5) ---- certain types of immunity.
19) Boşluk 1
A)were being eaten
B)had been eaten
C)will have been eaten
20) Boşluk 2
21) Boşluk 3
A)as well as
22) Boşluk 4
23) Boşluk 5
Soruda, verilen cümleyi uygun şekilde tamamlayan ifadeyi bulunuz.
24) Because a relatively high proportion of breed is included in the daily food intake of most peoples, ----.
A)the main ingredients have always been flour and yeast
B)it would be subsidised in many countries
C)there are several other methods of producing it
D)different shapes were being evolved to provide some variety
E)it is of considerable importance from the point of view of diet
25) Today more than 100 million people have a breathing problem ----.
A)if only the rise in asthma cases has stopped
B)that asthma levels are dropping in those born after 1985
C)which costs $6 billion a year in the US alone
D)unless they prefer not to admit it
E)since exposure to antibiotics while in the womb is generally regarded as a further irritant
26) Although relatively few people have outright food allergies, ----.
A)there are many who have difficulty in digesting certain foods
B)peanuts are among the most allergenic foods
C)biotechnologists are altering some foods genetically in an attempt to eliminate the proteins
D)the majority took a firm stand against genetically modified foods
E)the number of people who experience a reaction to vegetables is very negligible
27) It has only recently been accepted ----.
A)just as in Huntington's disease a defective protein kills brain cells
B)why the nerve cells of the adult human brain were long thought to be too specialized to regenerate
C)because now it appears that the brain can greatly increase production in an attempt to repair damage
D)in case the discovery raises the possibility of developing drugs to encourage cells to regenerate faster and sooner
E)that adult human brains can generate new cells
28) ---- where farmers benefit from legal opium cultivation for the production of painkillers.
A)Turkey is one of several countries
B)The UN's drug control agency admits that crop substitution projects are inadequate
C)Total opium elimination in these countries is hardly feasible
D)Until recently, only the trafficking of opium was prohibited in Laos, not the cultivation of it
E)Opium is one of the oldest painkillers known
29) Smallpox was once a dreaded human disease, ----.
A)while genetic engineering can be used in several ways to make vaccines
B)although today DNA technology is helping medical researchers develop vaccines
C)even if artificial-mutant vaccines may cause fewer side effects than natural mutants
D)but it was eradicated worldwide in the 1970s by widespread vaccination
E)since there has been no effective drug treatment for many viral diseases
30) ---- who will become schizophrenic.
A)There seems to be a genetic predisposition
B)A cure is nowhere in sight
C)Neither doctors nor scientists can accurately predict
D)They confuse the real and the imaginary
E)Treatment of the disorder is improving
31) When we recognize that we are in severe danger, ----.
A)working memory has a deep effect on learning
B)our brain initiates a series of physical alarms
C)experiencing conflicts is a challenging part of life
D)eating meat allows our brains to grow healthier
E)negative emotions are essential for mental health
32) ---- when countered by antis tress measures such as exercising, enjoying time with friends and cultivating a hobby.
A)The ladder of success is a hard one
B)There must be a balance between tension and relaxation
C)Workloads seem lighter
D)Relaxation techniques are easy to learn
E)Stress can be understood in a variety of ways
33) ----, they operate as effective carriers and may pass it on to other birds which are more susceptible.
A)Though many migratory birds are immune to the effects of the avian flu virus
B)Since many residents of outlying villages have refused to carry out the culling of their chickens to prevent the spread of avian flu
C)Despite the fact that the avian flu virus is spread, primarily, by migratory birds
D)As symptoms of bird flu in humans are similar to those of common flu
E)If the spread of the avian flu virus through populations of wild birds remains unchecked
34) Oxygen, sugars and amino acids are allowed into the brain ----.
A)as toxins could severely impair the brain's functioning
B)which provided early evidence of the blood-brain barrier
C)but most other substances are kept out
D)that controls which molecules in the bloodstream can enter the brain
E)just as no other organ is equally efficient
Soruda, verilen İngilizce cümleye anlamca en yakın Türkçe cümleyi bulunuz.
35) Many people believe that an ulcer is caused by stress or spicy foods, but this is not the case.
A)Stresin veya baharatlı yiyeceklerin ülsere neden olduğu çoğu insanın kanısıdır, fakat bu hiç de doğru değildir.
B)Birçok insan, ülserin oluşmasında stresin veya baharatlı gıdaların etkili olduğuna inansa da, gerçek durum böyle değildir.
C)Çok sayıda insanın inancına göre, stres veya baharatlı gıdalar sıklıkla ülsere yol açmaktadır, ancak durum öyle değildir.
D)Pek çok insan, ülserin, stres veya baharatlı gıdalar nedeniyle oluştuğuna inanır, ancak durum böyle değildir.
E)Ülserin özellikle stresin veya baharatlı yiyeceklerin sonucu olarak ortaya çıktığına birçok insan inanmaktadır, ancak işin gerçeği bu değildir.
36) In addition to traffic fatalities, alcohol use has been implicated in many other deaths among young people, including drownings, falls, suicides, and homicides.
A)Gençler arasında alkol kullanımı, trafik ölümlerinden başka, boğulmalar, düşmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler gibi diğer ölüm türlerinin de nedeni olmuştur.
B)Gençler arasındaki alkol kullanımı, trafik ölümlerinin yanı sıra, boğulmalar, düşmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler gibi diğer pek çok çeşit ölüme yol açabilmektedir.
C)Alkol kullanımı, gençler arasında, trafik ölümlerine ek olarak, boğulmalar, düşmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler dahil diğer birçok ölümün nedeni olmuştur.
D)Trafik ölümlerinden ayrı olarak, boğulmalar, düşmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetler, alkol kullanımı nedeniyle gençler arasında yaygın olan diğer ölüm biçimleridir.
E)Alkol kullanımı nedeniyle, trafik ölümlerinden ayrı olarak, gençler arasında yaygın olan diğer ölüm biçimleri, boğulmalar, düşmeler, intiharlar ve cinayetlerdir.
37) In nearly all forms of cancer, the big problem is that it spreads to other parts of the body.
A)Kanserin bütün türleri dikkate alındığında, bu hastalığın vücudun diğer yerlerine yayılarak sorun yarattığı görülür.
B)Kanserin her çeşidinde başlıca sorun, bu hastalığın vücudun her yerine yayılmış olmasıdır.
C)Vücudun çeşitli yerlerine yayıldığı için, kanserin bütün türleri bir sorundur.
D)Hemen tüm kanser türlerindeki büyük sorun, kanserin vücudun diğer bölümlerine yayılmasıdır.
E)Kanserin hemen tüm çeşitlerinde görülen en önemli sorun, hastalığın yayılarak vücudun her yerini etkilemesidir.
38) The question we have to answer is how the 60 trillion cells composing the human body communicate with each other and keep the body as a whole in balance.
A)Bizce ilk önce cevaplanması gereken soru, 60 trilyon hücreden oluşan insan vücudunun nasıl iletişim sağladığı ve bir bütün olarak nasıl dengede kaldığıdır.
B)Cevaplamamız gereken soru, insan vücudunu oluşturan 60 trilyon hücrenin birbiriyle nasıl iletişim kurduğu ve vücudu bir bütün olarak nasıl dengede tuttuğudur.
C)Bizce, insan vücudunda yer alan 60 trilyon hücrenin birbirleriyle nasıl iletişim kurduğu ve vücudu genel olarak nasıl dengede tuttuğu hâlâ cevap bekleyen bir sorudur.
D)İnsan vücudunu oluşturan ve vücut bütünlüğünü dengede tutan 60 trilyon hücrenin birbiriyle nasıl iletişim kurduğu sorusu cevaplanmalıdır.
E)Öncelikle cevaplanması gereken soru insan vücudundaki 60 trilyon hücrenin, vücut dengesini sağlamak için birbiriyle nasıl iletişim kurduğudur.
39) A balanced diet containing correct amounts of the basic food substances is essential, but there is no evidence that when, or at what intervals, one eats makes the slighlest difference.
A)Dengeli beslenmenin temel gıda maddelerini yeterli miktarda içermesi şarttır, ancak ne zaman ve hangi aralıklarla yemek yenildiğinin bu hususta herhangi bir fark yaratmadığı kanıtlanmıştır.
B)Dengeli beslenmede doğru miktarda bulunması şart olan temel gıda maddelerinin ne zaman ve hangi aralıklarla yenmesi gerektiğine ilişkin en ufak bir kanıt bulunamamıştır.
C)Temel gıda maddelerini doğru miktarlarda içeren dengeli bir beslenme esastır, ancak ne zaman veya hangi aralıklarla yemek yenildiğinin en ufak bir fark oluşturduğuna ilişkin kanıt bulunmamaktadır.
D)Dengeli olması için beslenmenin temel gıda maddelerini doğru oranlarda içermesi önemlidir, ancak yemeğin ne zaman veya hangi aralıklarla yenmesi gerektiği konusunda en ufak bir kanıt henüz yoktur.
E)Dengeli beslenmek için esas olan temel gıda maddelerinin ne miktarda yenmesi gerektiği bilinmektedir, fakat bunların yenme zamanı ve aralıklarının nasıl bir fark yaratacağı konusunda kesin bir bilgi yoktur.
40) A person's health history may reveal a disease that interferes with the body's use of nutrients or that affects the person's eating habits.
A)Kişinin sağlık öyküsü, yemek yemesini engelleyen veya bedeninin besinlerden yararlanma sürecini etkileyen bir hastalığı açığa çıkarmada kullanılabilir.
B)Kişinin sağlık öyküsü, bedenin besinlerden yararlanmasını engelleyen veya kişinin yemek yeme alışkanlıklarını etkileyen bir hastalığı açığa çıkarabilir.
C)İnsanın yemek yemesini engelleyen veya bedenin besinlerden yararlanma sürecini etkileyen hastalıklar, kişinin sağlık öyküsünden yararlanılarak ortaya çıkarılabilir.
D)Bir kişinin sağlık öyküsünden, hem onun yemek yeme alışkanlıklarını etkileyen hem de bedenin besinlerden yararlanmasını engelleyen hastalıklar kolaylıkla anlaşılabilir.
E)Bedenin besinlerden yararlanma sürecini etkileyen veya kişinin yemek yemesini engelleyen hastalıkların çoğu, kişinin sağlık öyküsünden anlaşılmaktadır.
41) A new approach that is being tested in the treatment of cancer is the possibility of mobilizing the immune system to attack tumour cells.
A)Kanser tedavisinde denenmekte olan yeni bir yaklaşım, tümör hücrelerine saldırması için bağışıklık sistemini harekete geçirme olasılığıdır.
B)Bağışıklık sistemini harekete geçirerek tümör hücrelerini yok etmek, kanser tedavisinde uygulamaya konulan yeni bir yaklaşımdır.
C)Tümör hücrelerini yok edebilmek için bağışıklık sisteminin etkisini artırmak, kanser tedavisinde üzerinde durulan yeni bir yaklaşımdır.
D)Kanser tedavisinde ortaya konan yeni bir yaklaşıma göre, tümör hücreleri ile mücadele etmek için bağışıklık sistemini tümden etkili kılmak gerekir.
E)Kanser tedavisinde üzerinde durulan yeni bir yaklaşım, bağışıklık sisteminin etkisinden yararlanarak tümör hücrelerini yok edebilmektir.
Soruda, verilen Türkçe cümleye anlamca en yakın İngilizce cümleyi bulunuz.
42) Çevredeki değişikliklerin, beyinlerimizde zamanın öznel biçimde algılanmasına nasıl yol açtığı sorusu, ruhbilimcileri ve beyin araştırmacılarını düşündürmeye devam etmektedir.
A)Psychologists and brain researchers have recently started to wonder how changes in the environment cause the brain to experience time subjectively.
B)The question of how changes in the environment give rise to the subjective experience of time in our brains continues to preoccupy psychologists and brain researchers.
C)How changes in the environment can lead to the subjective experience of time in our brains is a matter of discussion among psychologists and brain researchers.
D)The subjective time experience of our brains resulting from environmental changes has long been a controversial issue among psychologists and brain researchers.
E)The reasons behind the subjective perception of time by the brain have not yet been explained by psychologists or brain researchers.
43) Şekerler, ölçülü miktarlarda kullanıldıklarında sağlığa zarar vermeden yemeklere çeşitlilik katarlar, ancak büyük miktarlarda alındıklarında tehlikeli olabilirler.
A)The use of moderate amounts of sugar to give variety to meals is not unhealthy, but in large amounts it can be dangerous.
B)Sugars should not be used in large amounts as they are dangerous to the health, but small amounts give variety to meals and are acceptable.
C)Since moderate amounts of sugar are not harmful, they can be used to give variety to meals, but large amounts are harmful and should be avoided.
D)When used in moderate amounts, sugars add variety to meals without harming health, but when taken in large amounts they can be dangerous.
E)Sugars, used in moderation, can give variety to a meal and are then harmless, but large amounts must be avoided.
44) Göğüs kanseri hakkındaki korkunun bir kısmı, bu hastalığın tehlikelerine ilişkin yanlış bilgiye ve yanlış anlamaya dayanmaktadır.
A)There is so much misinformation as well as misunderstanding about the risks of breast cancer that it has led to a great deal of fear about this disease.
B)Misinformation and misunderstanding with regard to the risks of breast cancer have caused people to fear this disease.
C)The risks of breast cancer are such that misinformation and misunderstanding about this disease have been the cause of much fear.
D)Some of the fear about breast cancer is based on misinformation and misunderstanding concerning the risks of this disease.
E)Breast cancer involves various risks, but some of the fear about this disease mainly derives from misinformation and misunderstanding concerning it.
45) Bu rapor, tıbbi bakım eksikliği sonucunda, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde birçok çocuğun bir yaşına bile gelmeden öldüğü gerçeğini vurguluyor.
A)It is stressed in this report that the death of so many children before the age of one in the developing countries could be prevented by better health services.
B)According to this report it is definite that many children in the developing countries die before they reach the age of one year as health facilities are so inadequate.
C)This report emphasizes the fact that as a result of inadequate medical care, many children in developing countries die before they reach even one year old.
D)According to this very emphatic report, children under one year old in the developing countries die because of the lack of medical care.
E)As this report underlines, it is the lack of medical care that is responsible for so many deaths among children who haven't even reached their first birthday in the developing countries.
46) Uyku hapları, özellikle birkaç haftadan daha uzun süre veya yüksek dozlarda düzenli olarak kullanıldığında, bazı insanlarda bağımlılığa neden olabilir.
A)When people take sleeping pills regularly at particularly high doses for much longer than one or two weeks, they become very dependent on these medicines.
B)If sleeping pills are used regularly at high doses for a few weeks or longer, some people in particular can develop an addiction to them.
C)Sleeping pills, especially when used regularly for longer than a few weeks or at high doses, can cause dependency in some people.
D)So long as sleeping pills are taken at very high doses for several weeks or longer, they can cause dependency in a number of people.
E)Some people can be particularly addicted to sleeping pills when used at high doses or for much longer than several weeks.
47) Hastalığın Tanrıdan gelen bir ceza olarak görüldüğü zamanlardan bu yana tıp, pek çok aşamadan geçmiştir.
A)So far the biggest obstacle to be passed in medicine was the belief that illness was a punishment from God.
B)Medicine has improved in many ways since then when illness was regarded as a punishment from God.
C)At many stages the medical world regarded illness as a punishment from God.
D)When disease was regarded as a punishment from God, medicine had little chance of developing.
E)Medicine has passed through many phases from the times when disease was regarded a punishment from God.
48) Afrika ülkelerinin çoğunda, özellikle Kenya'da kızamık en ağır çocukluk dönemi enfeksiyonu olarak kabul edilmektedir.
A)Measles is generally regarded as one of the most dangerous illnesses, particularly among children in Kenya and elsewhere in Africa.
B)In many of the countries in Africa, particularly in Kenya, measles is regarded as the most acute childhood infection.
C)In the African state of Kenya it is generally agreed that measles is the worst of the childhood ailments.
D)In Africa, Kenya excepted, measles is thought as the infection that endangers most children.
E)The incidence of measles in childhood in Kenya and elsewhere in Africa is exceedingly high.
Soruda, boş bırakılan yere, parçada anlam bütünlüğünü sağlamak için getirilebilecek cümleyi bulunuz.
49) Recently a great deal of research has been carried out on the benefits of marriage. On average, married people are healthier and have lower mortality rates than single, divorced or separated people. ----. Moreover, they suffer from less anxiety, depression and other mental ailments. These findings apply to both sexes.
A)Formal marriage usually involves a higher degree of personal commitment
B)This claim is still widely repeated
C)Several research projects show that women also benefit
D)This means that serious violence among married couples is fairly uncommon
E)Their lives are more regular and secure and they engage in fewer harmful activities
50) There is a popular theory that suggests we only use 10 per cent of our brain, and that if we could just find a way to tap the other 90 per cent it might be employed in the important question of how it works. ----. A recent spate of studies shows that all areas of the brain are active when performing day-today functions and there is no 90 per cent that remains untapped.
A)There are countless other ways in which the human brain is unique
B)Unfortunately, this theory has turned out to be wrong
C)We should also remember that other animals are clever too, though in different ways
D)Another theory tries to account for the fact that we are suspicious of others' motives
E)This explains why, unlike other animals, we are able to ignore the selfish dictates of our genes
51) Headaches are among the most common medical problems. Some people have headaches often, while others hardly ever have them. ---- However, a change in the pattern or nature of headaches could signal a serious problem and calls for prompt medical attention.
A)In addition to drugs, which are enormously beneficial in treating diseases, many other treatments can help relieve pain.
B)In general, though headaches may be painful and distressing, they rarely reflect a serious medical condition.
C)Pain is an unpleasant sensation signalling that the body is damaged or threatened with an injury.
D)On the contrary, high blood pressure may produce a throbbing sensation in the head.
E)Actually, pain begins in and around the eyes and begins to affect the whole head.
52) The human body changes in many noticeable ways with age. Perhaps the first sign of aging occurs when the eye cannot focus easily on close objects. Often by age 40 or so, many people find it difficult to read without using glasses. ---- People tend to lose some ability to hear the highest pitched tones. Therefore, older people may find that violin music no longer sounds as exciting as it did when they were young.
A)Hearing loss may be caused by a mechanical problem in the ear canal or middle ear that blocks the conduction of sound.
B)Some hearing tests can detect disorders in the auditory processing areas of the brain.
C)Neural hearing loss may be caused by brain tumours that also damage nearby nerves and the brain stem.
D)People who can't hear well enough may need hearing aids that keep the volume of sound at a suitable level.
E)Hearing also changes with age.
53) Ice climbing and rock climbing share some important features. Both use ropes, harnesses, and other specialized equipment for ascending steep granite or blue ice. ----. A rock climber follows the natural cracks or weaknesses in the rock whereas, with ice tools in each hand, an ice climber has more freedom to blaze a path up and is limited only by the ice conditions and the technology of the tools.
A)Most ice climbing trips require an arduous trek into the mountains and possibly several nights out in the cold
B)But, the method of climbing in each case is different
C)However, climbing itself has always been considered to be very dangerous
D)There are many tragic stories of climbing accidents
E)But once you find your footing, ice climbing can become addictive
54) Epilepsy, one of the most common neurological disorders in the world, is caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. ----. Most forms of epilepsy have been assumed to stem from brain tissue "scars" acquired through trauma, so that molecular approaches to understanding and treating the disease would be fruitless.
A)It is true that, in developed countries, a principal focus of epilepsy research has been on the causes of the disease
B)The symptoms of this disease range in severity from mild sensory disruption to recurring seizures and unconsciousness
C)In addition, not all cases of epilepsy have been fully studied
D)Moreover, proteins as large as insulin have been proposed as neurotransmitters
E)On the contrary, a pairing of proteins in neurons may be relevant to the pathogenesis of human epilepsy
Soruda, cümleler sırasıyla okunduğunda parçanın anlam bütünlüğünü bozan cümleyi bulunuz.
55) (I) The provision of a safe water supply constitutes the most important step in preventing water-borne diseases such as cholera. (II) Water for a community is of vital importance. (III) It is obtained in various ways depending on local conditions. (IV) Surface water can be piped from reservoirs, rivers or lakes. (V) Underground water can be tapped by wells.
56) (I) Infants all over the world begin to smile at about the same age. (II) Whether they are born in a remote African village or in a middle class American home, it seems to make no difference. (III) Unfortunately, this usually occurs when they see familiar faces or hear familiar voices. (IV) This suggests that age is more important in determining the onset of smiling than are the conditions of rearing. (V) Moreover, blind babies smile at about the same age as sighted infants, suggesting it is an innate response.
57) (I) As people age, the amount of water in the body decreases. (II) Since many drugs dissolve in water, and since less water is available to dilute them, these drugs reach higher levels of concentration in the elderly. (III) Also, the kidneys are less able to excrete drugs into the urine, and the liver is less able to metabolize many drugs. (IV) For these reasons, many drugs tend to stay in an elderly person's body much longer than they would in a younger person's body. (V) People in every civilization in recorded history have used drugs of plant and animal origin to prevent and treat disease.
58) (I) Most episodes of illness with a fever in children are caused by viral infections, although bacterial infections can also produce a fever. (II) The first symptom of a severe eye infection is usually swollen and red eyelids. (III) In fact, it is often hard to distinguish a bacterial infection from a viral infection. (IV) Though bacterial infections can be serious, they usually respond readily to antibiotics. (V) Prompt diagnosis of a bacterial infection is thus important to ensure prompt treatment.
59) (I) There are several reasons why conventional medicine distrust the practitioners of alternative medicine. (II) Herbalists believe they can cure wide range of conditions with plant substances alone. (III) These people like to look beyond the immediate symptoms to the body's total state. (IV) They aim to restore health by helping the body to heal itself. (V) Their skill lies in knowing which plants are beneficial in which circumstances.
60) (I) It is the accuracy of laser surgery that makes it so efficient. (II) The laser beam can also remove bone which makes it invaluable in ear surgery. (III) This accuracy can be increased by sending the beam along fibres of glass finer than a human hair. (IV) These can carry a beam around corners and direct it precisely at a tiny area. (V) Thus there is virtually, no risk of damaging healthy cells.
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Even though there have been truly significant advances in modern medicine, health problems still abound and cause untold misery. Although heart disease and cancer were rare at the beginning of the 20th century, today these two diseases strike with increasing frequency, in spite of billions of dollars in research to combat them, and in spite of tremendous advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques. In America, one person in three suffers from allergies, one in ten has ulcers and one in five is mentally ill. Every year, a quarter of a million infants are born with a birth defect and undergo expensive surgery, or are hidden away in institutions. Other degenerative diseases such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and chronic fatigue afflict a significant majority of Americans. Further learning disabilities make life miserable for seven million young people and their parents. These diseases were extremely rare only a generation or two ago. Today, chronic illness afflicts nearly half of all Americans and causes three out of four deaths in the United States.
61) One point that is stressed in the passage about the American people is that ----.
A)they are less liable to degenerative diseases than most other peoples
B)the rate of infant mortality among them is rising rapidly
C)there is an alarming lack of communication between parents and their children
D)the incidence of cancer among them is slowly being reduced due to medical advances
E)in one way or another, a very large proportion of them have health problems
62) According to the passage, cancer and heart diseases are on the increase ----.
A)and most of the cures have serious side-effects
B)due to problems of diagnosis which for the present seem insurmountable
C)since research so far carried out in these fields has been quite inadequate
D)even though a great deal of money is being spent on research into them
E)but very little is being done by the authorities to combat them
63) The writer of this passage draws our attention to ----.
A)the fact that it is young people who are the most affected by degenerative diseases
B)the paradox that medicine today has improved remarkably, but more and more people are suffering from various diseases
C)the commonly-held view that cancer will, in a few decades, be completely eradicated
D)the argument that good health depends upon a healthy diet and early diagnosis
E)the possibility that it is mental rather than physical health that is going to be the major problem of the future in the US
64) The passage stresses that ill-health gives rise to a great deal of misery ----.
A)which is not confined to the patient alone
B)which is largely associated with pain
C)especially in the case of chronic illness
D)even before an accurate diagnosis has been made
E)especially when the symptoms are severe
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Many athletes credit drugs with improving their performance, but some of them may want to thank their brain instead. Mounting evidence suggests that the boost from human growth hormone (HGH), an increasingly popular doping drug, might be caused by the placebo effect. In a new double-blind trial funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency, in which neither researchers nor participants knew who was receiving HGH and who was taking a placebo, the researchers asked participants to guess whether or not they were on the real drug. Then they examined the results of the group who guessed that they were getting HGH when, in fact, they had received a placebo. That group improved at four fitness tests measuring strength, endurance, power and sprint capacity. The study participants who guessed correctly that they were taking a placebo did not improve, according to preliminary results presented at the Society for Endocrinology meeting in June 2011. “The finding really shows the power of the mind” said Ken Ho, an endocrinologist at the Garvan Institute in Sydney, Australia, who led the study. She maintains that many athletes are reaping the benefits of the placebo effect, without knowing whether what they are taking is beneficial or not.
65) It is clearly stated in the passage that the support given by certain drugs ----.
A)is largely accepted for its positive contribution to performance
B)has been proven by many studies around the world
C)has led authorities to take the necessary measures against these drugs
D)has been openly disputed by most of the athletes
E)results in the improved performances of all the athletes who take them
66) According to the results of the study funded by the World Anti-Doping Agency, ----.
A)the study participants were all aware they were given a placebo
B)those who knew that they were given real drugs failed to show improvement in fitness tests
C)the athletes who did not know they were given a placebo did well on fitness tests
D)the preliminary findings showed the increased popularity of drugs
E)the effects of HGH are incompatible with those found in other studies
67) It is understood from the passage that the placebo effect ----.
A)is highly esteemed among those who are interested in athletics
B)can play a significant role in improving the performances of athletes
C)has been monitored in the participating groups that consist of people taking doping drugs
D)was also tested in other branches of sports where competition exists
E)was very high in the studies where participants were informed in advance
68) It can be inferred from the passage that ----.
A)external interventions may have negative impacts on one’s performance
B)every athlete should be involved in a study to increase his or her performance
C)success lies in the power of one’s mind no matter which treatment he or she is exposed to
D)the World Anti-Doping Agency should be much more careful about the use of drugs in sports
E)much more research should be done on the placebo effect among athletes
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Reading presents a real paradox to neurobiologists. It was only invented a few thousand years ago, so there really has not been enough time for our brain to evolve specialized ways to do it. How do brain circuits produced by millions of years of evolution in a world without written words adapt to the specific challenges of reading? We know we have to learn the skill but how does our brain learn to read? in the social sciences, the majority of researchers do not see a problem. There is a widespread view that the brain is a completely adaptable organ, capable of absorbing any form of culture. Yet recent findings from brain imaging studies and neurophysiology throw new light on the organization of the reading circuits in the brain. The findings contradict this simplistic model of a brain that merely absorbs everything from its cultural environment. And they suggest that the architecture of our brain is limited by strong genetic constraints though it seems that it has still some degree of flexibility.
69) The passage makes the point that, until recently, ----.
A)it was only the abnormal brain that attracted any attention
B)researchers in social sciences ignored the views of neurophysiologists concerning the brain
C)the brain was generally thought to adapt itself easily to new cultural environments
D)the structure of the brain did not attract much attention except from neurobiologists
E)neurophysiologists were not aware of the structural complexity of the brain
70) The writer is intrigued by the fact that the brain, which evolved long before the written word came into use, ----.
A)had already had the genetic capacity to form words
B)had been able to communicate through images
C)had already developed certain reading circuits
D)managed to adapt itself to the very distinct skill of reading
E)had already achieved full flexibility to adapt itself to new forms of culture
71) A recent view neurophysiologists, the brain, is that ----.
A)it is extremely lastik, esnek, eğilebilir'>flexible as it is not affected by genetic heritage
B)its structure is largely shaped by genetic traits
C)it has developed various specialized skills over the last thousand years or so
D)its circuits have remained constant for millions of years
E)its creative powers are more apparent in some fields of learning
72) According to the passage, although people have had the skill of reading for several thousand years, ----.
A)the actual process of learning how to read has only just been discovered by neurophysiologists
B)there has been no improvement in the speed at when people can read
C)the brain remains inflexible and cannot cope with different cultures
D)from the angle of evolution, this has been insufficient for the brain to develop particularized reading skills
E)it is only in the social sciences that this skill has been seriously studied
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Therapists have to be very careful before they make a diagnosis of delusional disorder. A great many complaints are founded on fact. It is possible that a patient is really being harassed at work, that her husband is deceiving her, or that her business partner is cheating her. Indeed, therapists must be careful not to mislabel facts as delusions, a trap known as "the Martha Mitchell effect". Martha Mitchell was the wife of former US attorney general John Mitchell. In October 1972, he was accused of having ordered the break-in at the Democratic campaign headquarters in the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. Mrs Mitchell repeatedly told the press that her husband was being made a scapegoat to protect the real culprit , President Richard M. Nixon. The White House spread disinformation about Mrs Mitchell, saying she had a drinking problem and implying that her statements were delusional. When the scandal was ultimately unravelled, Mrs Mitchell's statements were proved true and she was shown to be utterly sane and with no drinking problem.
73) The passage draws attention to the fact that ----.
A)John Mitchell had indeed violated the law on several occasions
B)it can sometimes be difficult for therapists to distinguish between fact and delusion
C)President Nixon had never trusted his attorney general
D)Mrs Mitchell had always been subject to delusions
E)complaints always have a foundation in fact
74) We understand from the passage that Mrs Mitchell ----.
A)was often treated by therapists on account of her delusions
B)did indeed have a drinking problem
C)was indifferent to the disinformation spread by the White House
D)was unjustly portrayed as suffering from delusions
E)displayed little interest in the Watergate affair
75) We learn from the passage that, in the Watergate affair, US attorney general John Mitchell ----.
A)was criminally involved in the break-in at the Democratic campaign headquarters
B)was made to appear as the leading wrongdoer
C)asked the press to interview his wife
D)advised President Nixon on the legal procedure
E)was anxious that his wife should not get involved with the press
76) According to the passage, Mrs Mitchell's statements about her husband ----.
A)were disregarded by the press
B)were imaginary rather than factual
C)were, in fact, true but deliberately denied
D)convinced President Nixon that his attorney general was innocent
E)were examined by therapists on a regular basis
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Women seem to be particularly vulnerable to depression during their reproductive years: Rates of the disorder are highest in females between the ages of 25 and 45. New data indicate that the incidence of depression in females rises after giving birth. In 2007 Patricia Dietz reported that 10.4%of 4,398 mothers had been depressed in the nine months following childbirth compared with 8.7% in the nine months before pregnancy and 6.9% during pregnancy. More than half of the women with post natal depression had also been depressed during or before pregnancy suggesting that a previous occurrence of depression may be the biggest risk factor for acquiring the illness post partum depression. But the hormonal changes that occur in a new mother's body are also thought to contribute to postpartum depression. During pregnancy, a woman experiences a surge in blood levels of oestrogen and progesterone. Then, in the first 48 hours after childbirth, the amount of these two hormones falls suddenly, almost back to normal levels. This chemical instability could contribute to depression. Of course, hormonal flux does not fully explain postpartum depression. After all, this biochemical fluctuation occurs in all new mothers and yet only a relatively small proportion of them become depressed.
77) It is understood from the passage that one of the causes of postpartum depression could be ----.
A)the hormonal changes that are similar to those in the absence of pregnancy
B)the sudden decrease in the amount of oestrogen and progesterone following childbirth
C)the chemical stability in the blood levels during the first48 hours after childbirth
D)a biochemical fluctuation taking place before pregnancy begins
E)that some mothers are not psychologically ready to care for a baby
78) According to the study by Patricia Dietz, ----.
A)the level of depression among women was particularly high in 2007
B)the incidence of depress ion in females rises just before giving birth
C)the highest level of depression is seen during pregnancy
D)the majority of the women had all suffered from depress ion
E)women are depressed most in the nine months following childbirth
79) As pointed out in the passage, besides biological factors, another factor suggested for the emergence of postpartum depression is ----
A)chemical instability after pregnancy
B)a surge and flux in blood levels
C)a previous experience of depression
D)a 5O-ld drop of oestrogen and progesterone
E)hormonal changes in the mothers body
80) It can be Inferred from the passage that ----.
A)postpartum depression is seen in women who give birth to more than one child
B)the most important factor in explaining postpartum depression is the vulnerability of women when pregnant
C)Patricia Dietz has failed to determine the causes of depression despite her extensive studies
D)pregnant women appear to be more vulnerable to depression than men whose wives are pregnant
E)factors other than chemical instability can also be responsible for postpartum depression among women in their reproductive years